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Verona Vs Lecce En Vivo

Blood glucose values obtained after in vivo digestion of the four pasta samples. S, pasta with semolina. WS, pasta with wholemeal semolina. SS, pasta with semolina-based sourdough. SWS, pasta with wholemeal semolina-based sourdough. Bars indicate LSD intervals at 95% confidence level.

Verona vs Lecce en Vivo

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The effect of the use of wholemeal semolina was unexpected. Henry et al. [32] reported that there was no difference between the GI values of Fusilli pasta and whole wheat Fusilli pasta. Atkinson et al. [33] reported that the average GI of white spaghetti (49) and wholemeal spaghetti (48), derived from multiple studies by different laboratories, was the same. Kristensen et al. [34] reported that fiber had no effect on postprandial glycemia, when comparing refined wheat pasta and whole wheat pasta-based meals. Those authors hypothesized that this lack of fiber having an effect might be related to the type of dietary fiber present in wheat which, as it does not form a viscous solution upon hydration in the gastrointestinal tract, probably does not delay gastric emptying. In this work, the higher glycemic response of wholemeal-based pasta observed in vivo was in agreement with the data obtained after in vitro starch hydrolysis (Figure 1), which suggests that the fiber favored the accessibility of hydrolytic enzymes to starch granules, both in vitro and in vivo. It should be noted that no data can be found on the glycemic response of a pasta such as the one analyzed in this work (i.e., fresh and pasteurized gnocchetti-type pasta), and that all available data in literature are on dry pasta, mainly the spaghetti type. Scazzina et al. [35] published the GI of certain commercial Italian foods, among which pasta, showing how the GI of wholemeal spaghetti can range from low (35) to almost medium (55) depending on the brand. Meaning that different processing conditions can drastically modify the GI value.

In this study, use of sourdough had no effect on the glycemic response of fresh pasta, contrary to what was found in literature for bread, which reported how sourdough fermentation or the addition of organic acids had been used to lower the glycemic index [36]. This, as organic acids were thought to delay gastric emptying (mainly acetic acid), or to promote starch-gluten interactions which reduce starch bioavailability (mainly lactic acid) after heat treatment [26]. Scazzina et al. [37] found, for bread, that neither the leavening technique nor fiber content influenced starch availability to hydrolytic enzymes in vitro, and that the leavening technique significantly affected glucose response in vivo, whereas fiber content did not, suggesting that organic acids could delay gastric emptying without influencing starch availability. A possible explanation of our in vivo data cannot be related to the loss of organic acids in the cooking water, as reported by Fois et al. [11], although the pasta was cooked in water before in vitro digestion, where an effect of fermentation was detected. The pasta for in vivo measurements was cooked in salted water to make it palatable, whereas the pasta for in vitro measurement was not. A possible effect of salt on the gluten network and on starch gelatinization might have interfered with the effect of sourdough fermentation and needs further investigation. 041b061a72

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